Dramatica and the Creative Writer
A Place to Start
Mastering the craft of writing requires a skill in communication and
a flair for style. Through communication, an audience receives meaning. Through style, an
author achieves impact. The Dramatica theory of story explores both aspects of the writing
process providing structural guidelines for clarifying communication and artistic
techniques for enhancing style.
Accordingly, this book is divided into two principal sections: The Elements of
Structure and The Art of Storytelling. Separating these two aspects of the
writing craft allows us to see more deeply into each. This arrangement also splits the
experience of writing into two parts, when in practice, they are usually blended in a
Many other books have been written which explore the blended creative process. In
contrast, this is a book of theory, and is designed more to educate, than to inspire.
Still, the motivation to write is one of inspiration. So, before we rush headlong into a
detailed, accurate, and revolutionary explanation of story, let us put everything in
context by describing the relationship of Dramatica with the Creative Writer.
The process of communication requires at least two parties: the
originator and the recipient. In addition, for communication to take place, the originator
must be aware of the information or feelings he wishes to transmit, and the recipient must
be able to determine that meaning.
Similarly, storytelling requires an author and an audience. And, to tell a story, one must
have a story to tell. Only when an author is aware of the message he wishes to impart can
he determine how to couch that message so it will be accurately received.
It should be noted that an audience is more than a passive participant in the storytelling
process. When we write the phrase, "It was a dark and stormy night," we have
communicated a message, albeit a nebulous one. In addition to the words, another force is
at work creating meaning in the reader's mind. The readers themselves may have conjured up
memories of the fragrance of fresh rain on dry straw, the trembling fear of blinding
explosions of lightning, or a feeling of contentment that recalls a soft fur rug in front
of a raging fire. But all we wrote was, "It was a dark and stormy night." We
mentioned nothing in that phrase of straw or lightning or fireside memories. In fact, once
the mood is set, the less said, the more the audience can imagine. Did the audience
imagine what we, the authors, had in mind? Not likely. Did we communicate? Some. We
communicated the idea of a dark and stormy night. The audience, however, did a lot of
creating on its own. Did we tell a story? Definitely not!
Grand Argument Stories
The question arises: Is telling a story better than telling a
non-story? No. Stories are not "better" than any other form of communication --
just different. To see this difference we need to define "story" so we can tell
what a story is and what it is not. Herein lies a political problem. No matter how one
defines "story," there will be an author someplace who finds his favorite work
has been defined out, and feels it is somehow diminished by not being classified as a
story. Rather than risk the ire of countless creative authors, we have limited our
definition to a very special kind of story: the Grand Argument Story.
As its name indicates, a Grand Argument Story presents an argument. To be Grand,
the argument must be a complete one, covering all the ways the human mind might consider a
problem and showing that only one approach is appropriate to solving it. Obviously, this
limits out a lot of creative, artistic, important works -- but not out of being stories,
just out of being Grand Argument
Stories. So, is a Grand Argument Story better than any other kind? No. It is just a
The Free-form Author
While some authors write specifically to make an argument to an
audience, many others write because they want to follow their personal muse. Sometimes
writing is a catharsis, or an exploration of self. Sometimes authoring is a sharing of
experiences, fragmented images, or just of a point of view. Sometimes authoring is marking
a path for an audience to follow, or perhaps just presenting emotional resources the
audience can construct into its own vision. Interactive communications question the
validity of a linear story itself, and justifiably so. There are many ways to communicate,
and each has just as much value as the next depending upon how one wishes to affect
The Scope of Dramatica
With all these forms of communication, isn't Dramatica severely
limited in addressing only the Grand Argument Story? No. The Grand Argument model
described by Dramatica functions to present all the ways a mind can look at an issue. As a
result, all other forms of communication will be using the same pieces, just in different
combinations, sequences, or portions. In our example, we indicated that the less we said,
the more the audience could use its imagination. A Grand Argument Story says it all. Every
point is made, even if hidden obscurely in the heart of an entertainment. Other forms of
communication use "slices" of the model, chunks, or levels. Even if an author is
unaware of this, the fact that human minds share common essential concepts means that the
author will be using concepts and patterns found in the Dramatica model.
It has been argued that perhaps the symbols we use are what create
concepts, and therefore no common understanding between cultures, races, or times is
possible. Dramatica works because indeed there ARE common concepts: morality, for example.
Morality, a common concept? Yes. Not everyone shares the same definition of
morality, but every culture and individual understands some concept that means
"morality" to them. In other words, the concept of "morality" may have
many different meanings -- depending on culture or experience -- but they all qualify as
different meanings of "morality." Thus there can be universally shared essential
concepts even though they drift apart through various interpretations. It is through this
framework of essential concepts that communication is possible.
Communicating Concepts Through Symbols
How can essential concepts be communicated? Certainly not in their
pure, intuitive form directly from mind to mind. (Not yet, anyway!) To communicate a
concept, an author must symbolize it, either in words, actions, juxtapositions,
interactions -- in some form or another. As soon as the concept is symbolized, however, it
becomes culturally specific and therefore inaccessible to much of the rest of the world.
Even within a specific culture, the different experiences of each member of an audience
will lead to a slightly different interpretation of the complex patterns represented by
intricate symbols. On the other hand, it is the acceptance of common symbols of
communication that defines a culture. For example, when we see a child fall and cry, we do
not need to know what language he speaks or what culture he comes from in order to
understand what has happened. If we observe the same event in a story, however, it may be
that in the author's culture a child who succumbs to tears is held in low esteem. In that
case, then the emotions of sadness we may feel in our culture are not at all what was
intended by the author.
Simply having a feeling or a point of view does not an author make.
One becomes an author the moment one establishes an intent to communicate. Usually some
intriguing setting, dialog, or bit of action will spring to mind and along with it the
desire to share it. Almost immediately, most authors leap ahead in their thinking to
consider how the concept might best be presented to the audience. In other words, even
before a complete story has come to mind most authors are already trying to figure out how
to tell the parts they already have.
As a result, many authors come to the writing process carrying a lot of baggage: favorite
scenes, characters, or action, but no real idea how they are all going to fit together. A
common problem is that all of these wonderful inspirations often don't belong in the same
story. Each may be a complete idea unto itself, but there is no greater meaning to the sum
of the parts. To be a story, each and every part must also function as an aspect of the
Some writers run into problems by trying to work out the entire dramatic structure of a
story in advance only to find they end up with a formulaic and uninspired work.
Conversely, other writers seek to rely on their muse and work their way through the
process of expressing their ideas only to find they have created nothing more than a mess.
If a way could be found to bring life to tired structures and also to knit individual
ideas into a larger pattern, both kinds of authors might benefit. It is for this purpose
that Dramatica was developed.
When to Use Dramatica
For some authors, applying Dramatica at the beginning of a creative
project might be inhibiting. Many writers prefer to explore their subject, moving in
whatever direction their muse leads them until they eventually establish an intent. In
this case, the storytelling comes before the structure. After the first draft is
completed, such an author can look back at what he has created with the new understanding
he has arrived at by the end. Often, much of the work will no longer fit the story as the
author now sees it. By telling Dramatica what he now intends, Dramatica will be
able to indicate which parts of the existing draft are appropriate, which are not, and
what may be needed that is currently missing. In this way, the creative process is both
free and fulfilling, with Dramatica serving as analyst and collaborator.
Following the Muse
A number of authors write with no intent at all. They apply
themselves to recording their journey through a topic or subject or simply wander, musing.
The resulting work is almost always open to all kinds of interpretation, yet may elicit
strong emotions and conclusions in virtually everyone who observes the work. Even when an
author meanders, he does so with the same mental tools everyone shares. So although no
intended message might be conveyed, the subconscious patterns of the author's mental
processes are recorded in the work. For those authors who prefer a more freeform approach,
the concept of a Grand Argument Story is generally useless. It is not that the Dramatica
model cannot describe the nature of their communication. Rather, a freeform author simply
has no need of it.
Dramatica as a Tool
None of the creative techniques an author might use are better or
worse than others. They are simply different approaches to the creative process. The key
is to find the ones that work for you. Sometimes what works is not to create a full
argument, but to break the rules, shatter expectations, and play with the minds of your
audience members. Even here Dramatica can help. Because it defines a complete argument,
Dramatica can assist in predicting the effect that breaking an argument will have on the
message going to the audience: it can describe how the communication has been altered.
When all is said and written, Dramatica provides authors with a tool for understanding the
process of communication, if and when they want it.
How to Order your copy
Dramatica: A New Theory of Story
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Copyright©1996, Screenplay Systems, Inc.
The Dramatica theory was developed by Melanie Anne Phillips and Chris Huntley
Chief Architect of the Dramatica software is Stephen
Dramatica is a registered trademark of Screenplay Systems Incorporated
the Dramatica Theory Home Page
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About Dramatica and
Hi, I'm Melanie Anne Phillips,
creator of StoryWeaver,
co-creator of Dramatica
and owner of Storymind.com. If you have a moment, I'd like to tell you
about these two story development tools - what each is designed to do, how
each works alone on a different part of story development and how they can be
used together to cover the entire process from concept to completion of your
novel or screenplay.
What They Do
Dramatica is a tool to help you
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StoryWeaver uses a revolutionary new
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How They Work
By itself Dramatic appeals to
structural writers who like to work out all the details of their stories
logically before they write a word. By itself, StoryWeaver appeals to
intuitive writers who like to follow their Muse and develop their stories as
But, the finished work of a
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And the finished work of an intuitive writer can often lack direction, which is
where Dramatica can help.
So, while each kind of writer will
find one program or the other the most initially appealing, both kinds of
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Try Both Programs
We have a 90
Day Return Policy here at Storymind. Try either or both of these
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